﻿ 基于虚拟现实的火炮外弹道仿真方法
 计算机系统应用  2019, Vol. 28 Issue (6): 148-152 PDF

Artillery External Ballistics Simulation Method Based on Virtual Reality
WANG Yi, XUE Hong-Wei
NCO School, Artillery and Air-defense Forces Academy of Army, Shenyang 110867, China
Abstract: Aiming at the problem of non-repeatability, long period, high labor cost, and high technical requirements of the artillery launching experiment, this work studies the virtual simulation technology of artillery external ballistics. According to the characteristics of the artillery firing process, it analyzes artillery particle exterior trajectory equation set and establishes the mathematical model of the external ballistic motion process of the projectile. Combining virtual reality technology and Unity3D development engine, 3ds Max is used to build the artillery and projectile solid model, and C# is used as the development language to calculate and control the ballistic motion of the ballistics, and realize the analogue simulation of the artillery launching process. According to the analysis of the simulation data and the firing table, the simulation experiment is not only visually showing the flight state of the artillery launch and projectile, but the deviation is within the acceptable range, which facilitates the research of the external ballistics of the artillery.
Key words: artillery external ballistics     virtual reality     computer simulation     simulation model     Unity3D

1 引言

2 火炮外弹道仿真模型建立

2.1 弹丸外弹道运动过程数学建模

 $\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {\dfrac{{dv}}{{dt}} = - c\pi (y)F({v_\tau }) - g\sin \theta }\\ {\dfrac{{d\theta }}{{dt}} = \dfrac{{ - g\cos \theta }}{v}}\\ {\dfrac{{dx}}{{dt}} = v\cos \theta }\\ {\dfrac{{dy}}{{dt}} = v\sin \theta }\\ {{v_\tau } = v\sqrt {\dfrac{{{\tau _{0n}}}}{\tau }} } \end{array}} \right.$ (1)

 $F({v_\tau }) = \left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {0.00007454v_\tau ^2},&{{v_\tau } < 250}\\ {629.61 - 6.0255{v_\tau } + 1.8756 \times {{10}^{ - 2}}v_\tau ^2 - 1.8613 \times {{10}^{ - 5}}v_\tau ^3},&{250 \le {v_\tau } < 400}\\ {6.394 \times {{10}^{ - 8}}v_\tau ^3 - 6.325 \times {{10}^{ - 5}}v_\tau ^2 + 0.1548{v_\tau } - 26.63},&{400 \le {v_\tau } < 1400}\\ {0.00012315v_\tau ^2},&{{v_\tau } > 1400} \end{array}} \right.$ (2)
2.2 火炮射击实体模型构建

 图 1 火炮模型

 图 2 弹丸模型

 图 3 弹丸飞行状态

2.3 对海射击地形场景构建

Unity3D具有自带的Terrain地形系统, 而真实地形仿真是通过获取地球地理信息数据后制作为高度图, 然后将高度图导入到Unity3D中进行地形的仿真. 具体操作步骤为: 1)在U3D中创建地形并导入高度图, 在Terrain Composer中操作地形; 2)添加Splat; 3)平滑地形; 4)设置Splat Layer; 5)进行Filter操作, 选中卫星图, 添加Color Range, 依次编辑各色块的RGB值, 接着生成纹理, 完成纹理铺设. 至此, 便可以生成大地形的仿真还原.

 图 4 对海射击地形场景

2.4 爆炸场景构建

3 仿真试验与分析

 图 5 弹丸爆炸效果

 图 6 弹丸飞行距离与时间关系曲线

 图 7 弹丸飞行速度与时间关系曲线

 图 8 弹丸飞行高度与时间关系曲线

4 结论

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