区块链技术给加密货币带来了新的变化, 并得到了广泛的应用. 然而, 它仍面临着高吞吐量、低交易延迟、安全性和去中心化的需求和目标. 此外, 消费节点(交易提供者)的意愿难以映射到leader中, 区块开采者热衷于挖矿竞赛也导致中心化和能耗的加剧. 为此, 提出了一种不同于传统PoW (proof-of-work)共识的新型共识算法——PoM (proof-of-market), 及其第一个实施案例——Achain协议. PoM的算法设计使得消费节点进行PoW工作, 并投票选出leader节点. 这不仅离散化了挖矿的工作, 提升了去中心化, 降低了能耗, 还体现了消费节点的意愿, 只有受到最多支持的节点才能成为leader. 在性能上, 相较于PoW型区块链, Achain还提升了可扩展性, 此外, 还提供了一种Achain节点存储优化方案——FastAchain; 在安全性方面, Achain辅以一套激励相容的奖惩机制使得恶意节点的收益期望为负, 这保护了诚实节点的利益, 且Achain可以容忍至多1/3的全网总算力被恶意节点控制. 为了验证Achain的性能表现, 实施了一个大规模网络下的Achain原型用来评估其相关性能, 结果表明Achain达到了预期, 优于一些主流的代表性区块链协议, 且保持了良好的链收敛性和去中心化.
Blockchain technology has brought new changes to cryptocurrencies and has been widely used. However, it still faces the needs and goals of high throughput, low transaction latency, security, and decentralization. In addition, the willingness of consumption nodes (i.e., transaction providers) is difficult to be mapped into leaders, and block miners are keen on mining competitions, which also leads to intensified centralization and energy consumption. To this end, a new consensus algorithm, PoM (proof-of-market), and its first implementation case, the Achain protocol, are proposed. The algorithm is different from the traditional PoW (proof-of-work) consensus, and its design enables consumer nodes to perform PoW and vote for leader nodes, which not only discretizes the mining, improves decentralization, and reduces energy consumption but also reflects the willingness of consumer nodes. In other words, only the node mainly supported can become the leader. In terms of performance, Achain also improves scalability compared with PoW-type blockchains, and it provides a solution for node storage and optimization, which is called FastAchain. In terms of security, Achain is supplemented by a set of incentive-compatible reward and punishment mechanisms to make malicious nodes have negative revenue expectations, which protects the interests of honest nodes, and Achain can tolerate up to 1/3 of the total network computing power being controlled by the malicious nodes. In order to verify Achain’s performance, a prototype of Achain under a large-scale network is implemented for evaluation. The results show that Achain has achieved expectations, outperformed some mainstream representative blockchain protocols, and maintained positive chain convergence and decentralization.